Algiers Agreement 1975

On 13 June 1975, the foreign ministers of Iraq and Iran signed another treaty in Baghdad. He added details to agreements on conflict resolution and border fixing, as well as possible changes. The treaty is called “Iran-Iraq: Treaty on International Borders and Good Neighborhood Relations.” Iraq and Iran have formed a joint commission to mark the border between the two countries. The Commission completed the marking of the borders on 26 December 1975 with the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding. [15] Iran has withdrawn its armed forces from the border areas. The borders were closed and support for the Kurds ended. Iran has also called on the CIA and Mossad to end military support for Kurdish rebels. It was thought that the Iraqi government would negotiate with the Kurds with the end of international support, but the vice-president of the Revolutionary Command Council, Saddam Hussein, launched a major campaign against the rebels. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi intervened and a ceasefire was reached, but on 1 April the government relaunched the campaign. After several fighting, Iraqi forces declared victory, but more than 100,000 Kurdish refugees fled to Iran and Turkey, including leader Mustafa al-Barzani[16] to return with a new rebellion in 1978. [17] On 15 March 1975, the foreign ministers of Iraq and Iran met with Algerian representatives to establish a joint committee for the definition of the new border. [14] On 17 March, the protocol between the two countries was signed by the two foreign ministers.

The protocol stipulates that both countries commit to redefining the border. The agreement, proclaimed at the final meeting of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, to which the two nations belong, appeared to be a breakthrough in the clashes around the Kurdish rebellion in northern Iraq and navigation rights in the Shatt al Arab. This is the waterway shared by Iran and Iraq, where the Tigris and Euphrates are emptying in the Persian Gulf. The foreign ministers of Iraq and Iran will meet in Tehran on 15 March 1975, in the presence of the Algerian Foreign Minister, to establish working arrangements for the Joint Iraq-Iran Commission, created to implement the jointly agreed resolutions, as noted above. In accordance with the will of both sides, Algeria is invited to the meetings of the Iraqi-Iranian Joint Commission. The Commission sets its agenda and working procedures and, if necessary, holds meetings. The meetings will take place alternately in Baghdad and Tehran. The parties were committed to implementing the Algiers Agreement on State Borders and Neighbouring Relations between Iran and Iraq of 13 June 1975 with great care. The agreement divided the shatt al-Arab river between Iran and Iraq and then served as the basis for other bilateral agreements, including economic relations.

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